The article deals with the actual social and philosophical problems connected with the value transformations of post-Soviet society in the transition period of its development. The focus is on mental (ideological) attitudes or "traps for practical reason" that prevent the democratization and humanization of Russian public consciousness. One of such mental attitudes is the trap of historical heritage, which is a complex of probabilistic judgments about the historical purpose of society and the complete determination of the future by its past. In the course of rational-critical analysis, the erroneous biogenetic approach to Russian history is revealed, as well as possible negative consequences of its application to the solution of urgent social problems. The historical situation of the "Blockade of Leningrad" is considered to be such a pressing problem.
These Conference Proceedings combines materials of the conference – research
papers and thesis reports of scientific workers and professors. It examines informatization of society. Some articles deal with theoretical and methodological aspects of research issues of the information society. A number of articles are covered informatization of society and changes in socio-economic life of the country. Some articles are devoted to information and communication technologies and their application in the social and cultural life of the community. Authors are also interested in informatization and features of the development of dialogue between cultures.
Прага Vĕdecko vydavatelské centrum «Sociosféra-CZ»
We investigated how the land-use change from rainforest into jungle rubber, intensive rubber and oil palm plantations affects decomposers and litter decomposition in Sumatra, Indonesia. Litterbags containing three litter types were placed into four land-use systems and harvested after 6 and 12 months. Litter mass loss and litter element concentrations were measured, and different microbial groups including bacteria, fungi and testate amoebae were studied. After 12 months 81, 65, 63 and 53% of litter exposed in rainforest, jungle rubber in oil palm and rubber plantations was decomposed. In addition to land use, litter decomposition varied strongly with litter type and short-term effects differed markedly from long-term effects. After 6 months, oil palm and rubber litter decomposed faster than rainforest litter, but after 12 months, decomposition of rainforest litter exceeded that of oil palm and rubber litter, reflecting adaptation of bacteria and fungi to decompose structural compounds in rainforest litter but not (or less) in rubber and oil palm litter. Bacterial and fungal community composition and testate amoeba species number and density varied strongly with litter type, but little with land use. However, community composition of testate amoebae was mainly affected by land use. Generally, changes in bacteria, fungi and testate amoebae were linked to changes in litter element concentrations, suggesting that element ratios of litter material as basal resource for the decomposer food web shape the structure of decomposer communities and decomposition processes via bottom-up forces. Overall, changing rainforest to monoculture plantations shifts the decomposer community structure and negatively affects litter decomposition.